The incident began in the terminal's food court when the man pulled a knife on a screaming woman and placed a fake bomb on a table.
Police evacuated the area and declared an exclusion zone after the discovery of a "suspicious device" - the bomb squad was called in to investigate, and all trains were halted and flights grounded.
The man's first language was Arabic and an Arabic-speaking police officer was at the scene within minutes to negotiate, Police Commissioner Ian Stewart said.
He then chased the woman, a family member, while brandishing the knife, witnesses told Brisbane's The Sunday Mail.
Police have taken the "unusual" step of showing the device carried by an alleged offender that in part shut down Brisbane International Airport on Sunday night.
Police opened fire with bean bag rounds after the man claimed to have a bomb, Police Detective Superintendent Tony Fleming said.
Australia's Brisbane International Airport went into emergency lockdown on Saturday night after a man allegedly entered the international terminal carrying a knife.
He is due to appear before the Brisbane Magistrate's Court tomorrow.
"There is no evidence to suggest the incident at the worldwide airport is terrorism related; it is a domestic violence-related situation", police told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
When an officer was asked if the local incident could be related to the earlier Brisbane situation, they reportedly told the Gold Coast Bulletin: "It seems to be a very similar incident".
"The words that had been used by the alleged offender in this matter, his behaviour and the statements that he's made caused us to need to look at a number of vehicles and residences to ensure there were no IED (improvised explosive devices) or anything of concern", Assistant Commissioner Crawford said.